Land: 726 sq km
EEZ: 3.6 million sq km
Population: 92,533 (2005)
Language: English, Kiribati
Currency: Australian Dollar
Economy: Copra, fisheries and seaweed
The Republic of Kiribati is made up of three main island groups: The Gilbert, Phoenix and Line Islands and one isolated raised limestone island, Banaba (Ocean Island). The groups of islands contain 33 scattered atoll islands, dispersed over 3.5 million square kilometers in the central Pacific Ocean. The three main island groups stretch over 800 kilometers from north to south and over 3,210 kilometers from east to west.
The Kiribati 2010 census determined that the total population was 103,058,of whom 50.7% were female and 49.3% male. In all, 48.7% of the population lives in the capital of South Tarawa (in the Gilbert Islands), which has a population density of 3,173 people per square kilometer (KNSO & SPC 2012). The mean age of the I-Kiribati population is 24.9 years and 15.9% of the population is aged five years or younger, reflecting the high birth rate of 31,3 per 1,000 people per year (KNSO & SPC 2012). The latest Kiribati National Disability Survey identified 3,840 people living with disabilities, with 23% of those under the age of twenty (KNDSAC 2005).
The climate of Kiribati is hot and humid year around. This tropical climate is closely related to the temperature of the oceans surrounding the atolls and small islands. However, its seasonal rainfall is highly variable from year to year, mostly due to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO).
Kiribati is blessed with a vast ocean territory and great diversity of marine biodiversity, but is limited in its land area and terrestrial resources. The Kiribati economy depends heavily on its rich marine resources for employment, income and subsistence living. However, the resources provided by its limited land and terrestrial biodiversity are also central to the Kiribati way of life.
The public sector dominates Kiribati’s economy. It provides two-thirds of all formal sector employment and accounts for almost 50% of gross domestic product. Kiribati is highly exposed to external economic shocks, particularly surges in food and fuel commodity prices, due to its limited revenue base and high dependency on imports.
Kiribati is categorised by the United Nations as both a ‘Small Island Developing State’ and a ‘Least Developed Country’.
Source: Taken from Map No. 3974 Rev. 15 (Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific), United Nations, July 2007.
Date updated: March 2016
National Climate Change Priorities
The Kiribati Development Plan (KDP) 2012–2015 is the overarching national development plan detailing national priorities (GoK 2012c). The KDP is linked to the Millennium Development Goals, the Pacific Plan and the Mauritius Strategy for Small Island Developing States (BPoA+10). The KDP has six broad key policy areas (KPAs). Climate change is incorporated into KPA 4 on environment, providing the link to the KJIP. The key objective of KPA 4 is to facilitate sustainable development by mitigating the effects of climate change through approaches that protect biodiversity and support the reduction of environmental degradation by the year 2015.
Legal functions and responsibility for climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction and disaster responses and management continue to be vested in various agencies, as determined by national legislation. However, some laws need to be adjusted to enable agencies to respond effectively to impacts of climate change and disasters (KJIP-Book, Government of Kiribati 2014).
The KJIP contributes to the realisation of the KDP outcomes and provides the implementation plan for the NFCCCCA (2013) and the NDRMP (2012). Figure 7 below shows how it links to these and other national frameworks.
The KJIP is leading in advocating and operationalising an integrated approach to including climate change and disaster risks in national and community development planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluations.
The Government of the Republic of Kiribati sees the KJIP as a means to prioritise actions on climate change and related disaster risks that are highlighted in national communications and sector policies and action strategies impacted by climate change and disaster risks.
Figure 1 Linkages of the KJIP to national frameworks (source: Government of Kiribati, 2014)
The vision of the 9-year KJIP (2014 – 2023) is:
The goal of the KJIP is:
The 12 climate change priorities of Kiribati (2014-2023) are:
- Strengthening good governance, policies, strategies and legislation
- Improving knowledge and information generation, management and sharing
- Strengthening and greening the private sector, including small-scale business
- Increasing water and food security with integrated and sector-specific approaches and promoting healthy and resilient ecosystems
- Strengthening health-service delivery to address climate change impacts
- Promoting sound and reliable infrastructure development and land management
- Delivering appropriate education, training and awareness programmes
- Increasing effectiveness and efficiency of early warnings and disaster and emergency management
- Promoting the use of sustainable renewable sources of energy and energy efficiency
- Strengthening capacity to access finance, monitor expenditures and maintain strong partnerships
- Maintaining the sovereignty and unique identity of Kiribati
- Enhancing the participation and resilience of vulnerable groups
Each strategy has one or more key actions, sub-actions, outcomes and performance indicators (outcome- and output-based) to address climate change and disaster risks in response to the identified vulnerabilities and impacts. Detailed strategic plan with key actions, sub -actions, results and performance indicators, lead and support agencies and partners associated with each strategy, are provided as an Annex to the KJIP. All strategies and actions in the KJIP are inclusive of vulnerable groups, considering gender, youth and children, the elderly and people with disabilities.
Date updated: March 2016
Formerly part of the British territory known as the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Kiribati became an independent republic in 1979 and now enjoys full membership of the United Nations and all regional organisations. The country is a member of the Commonwealth and adopted a blend of both the British and American parliamentary systems. It is a sovereign, democratic state with a 42-member Maneaba ni Maungatabu (House of Parliament), elected every four years. The Beretitenti (President) is elected nationally from among three or four candidates nominated by the Maneaba from its ranks. The Beretitenti chooses a 12-member cabinet from the Maneaba.
The outer islands are well represented in Parliament, with 35 members representing the outer islands and six members for South Tarawa. Women make up just 4.3% of the members of the Kiribati Parliament, even though they represent 50% of the workforce (UNWomen n.d.).There are 20 island councils and three urban councils. Members of the island councils have discretionary power through issuing licences for business development and setting prices such as bus fares (KILGA 2013). A number of councils have developed strategic and operational plans, including Betio Town Council, Eutan Council and Abaiang Council, and Teinainono Council has launched its plan.
Disability falls under the responsibility of the Ministry of Women, Youth and Social Affairs (MWYSA) although there is neither a dedicated budget nor a dedicated position for it. Neither the Ministry of Education (MoE) or Health and Medical Services (MHMS) has dedicated positions that focus on disability support (UNICEF 2010).
While some women hold significant positions in the public service, historically not many women have been involved in the highest level of decision-making. Women’s voice and issues at the community level are being heard and incorporated into planning where women participated or had their views voiced by the men.
Climate change and disaster risks are being addressed in policies and strategies relating to population, water and sanitation, health and environment. Similarly disaster risk management is progressively being incorporated into policies and strategies relating to fisheries, agriculture, labour, youth and education. The new Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy encourages all government programs to collect, manage and use environmental data to safeguard the environment and strengthen resilience to climate change and disasters.
Only a few sectors have transferred strategic actions to address climate and disaster risks into their annual Sector Operational Plans and Ministerial Plans of Operations and budgeting.
Policies and strategies relating to human resource development, minerals and foreshore development, private sector development, investment, transport, communications, tourism and minerals do not explicitly consider climate change and disaster risks.
The Kiribati National Expert Group (KNEG) is the main coordination mechanism and entry point for climate change and disaster risk management initiatives in Kiribati. Following the launching of the Kiribati Joint Implementation Plan for Climate Change and Disaster Risk Management (KJIP-Book), a KJIP Secretariat was established under the Office of Te Beretitenti. Guided by the Development Coordinating Committee, the KJIP Secretariat main roles are facilitating KNEG meetings; reviewing and monitoring KJIP implementation together with responsible lead agencies; and communicating with the general public, Parliament, Cabinet, development partners and the international community climate change and disaster risk management related initiatives.
Source: KJIP Book, Government of Kiribati, 2014
For additional information and useful Kiribati government links, go to:
Date updated: March 2016
Kiribati has been working actively on climate change adaptation for 20 years, and with the development of pioneering tools and methodologies that are regarded as best practices regionally and internationally, has made and continues to make a considerable contribution to the global and regional adaptation planning and management process and pool of knowledge on building climate resilience. This contribution is made in the face of severe constraints and challenges confronted by Kiribati as a small island developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Country (LDC). For Kiribati, where climate change threatens the very existence of the nation and population, adaptation is not an option – but rather a matter of survival.
The National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA) (2007) sets out a 3 year plan for urgent and immediate actions in the Republic of Kiribati to begin work in adapting to climate change. The goal of the NAPA was to contribute to and periodically complement a long term framework of adaptation through identifying immediate and urgent adaptation needs that are consistent with national development strategies and climate change adaptation policies and strategies. The objective is to communicate in a simplified way the identified immediate and urgent adaptation needs of Kiribati, which is also relevant to the national communication obligation required by the UNFCCC. These adaptation needs are identified through a participatory, consultative and, multidisciplinary planning process. The NAPA outlines 9 priority projects valued at US$11.983 million to address short-term (3 years) needs in critical sectors (water, coastal zone management, agriculture, coastal infrastructure) and to strengthen national adaptive capacity and information systems.
The National Framework for Climate Change and Climate Change Adaptation (April 2013) establishes a framework for an effective national response to address the impacts of climate change that requires that climate change and climate change adaptation assume a prominent role within the national development planning process. This process is comprised of five main parts that include long range policy and strategy statements, namely: Kiribati Development Plan (KDP), annual GoK Budget, multi-year budget framework and Ministry Operational Plans (MOPs) and Public Enterprise Business Plans (PEBPs). The NFCCCCA extends the 2005 Climate Change Adaptation Strategy which was developed as part of the World Bank funded Kiribati Adaptation Project (KAP). Under this strategy the following five headings outline Kiribati action to strengthen its capability to meet the challenge of climate change. These are:
- Mitigation - aim to improve energy efficiency and enhance the use of renewable energy both on the main islands and in the outer islands;
- Integration of climate change and climate change adaptation into national planning and institutional capacity – aim to integrate climate change adaptation considerations into Kiribati Development Plan (KDP), annual GoK Budget, multi-year budget framework and Ministry Operational Plans (MOPs) and Public Enterprise Business Plans (PEBPs);
- External financial and technical assistance - have international climate change funds channel directly into the mainstream activities of line Ministries involved with climate change adaptation as direct budget support as a national priority;
- Population and resettlement – aim to reduce the vulnerability of Kiribati to increasing physical risks caused by climate change by establishing host country agreements to government-sponsored and self-sponsored emigration to resettle I-Kiribati overseas and assist the inevitable migration of the population, due to climate change as and when this eventually arrives;
- Governance and services – aim to improve policy coordination and planning on climate change adaptation, strengthen capacity of government to implement climate change adaptation measures, and build improves technical services capacity to address risks from climate change;
- Survivability and self-reliance – ensure that risks associated with climate change and the intellectual and practical processes for the planning for the consequence of climate change are undertaken at the earliest opportunity
The Kiribati Adaptation Program (KAP) is considered Kiribati’s adaptation strategy. A project under the Office of Te Beretitenti aimed at implementing on of the six key areas namely the integration of climate change into national planning capacity, external finance and technical assistance, governance and services and survivability and self-reliance. The KAP started in 2003 and is now running into the last year of Phase III (KAPIII) known as the Expansion phase program from 2012 to 2016.
KAPIII seeks to strengthen Kiribati’s ability to provide people with safe water and maintain resilient coastal infrastructure. It extends on the achievements of KAPI and KAPII, which piloted a number of critical adaptation measures such as mangrove planting, construction of sea walls and rainwater harvesting. KAPIII aims to:
- Improve water use and management via the installation of groundwater, roof rainwater harvesting systems, reducing water leakages and waste in existing systems, protecting water reserves, and improving long- term planning for local-level water management ensure cleaner, safer drinking water
- Protect against coastal erosion by investing in protection such as seawalls and mangrove planting at priority sites
- Strengthen government and community capacity to manage the effects of climate change and natural hazards by supporting the development and adoption of a national Coastal Management Policy as well as the development and implementation of locally managed Adaptation Plans
- Support and assist the Government in managing, monitoring and evaluating the Program
Part of KAPIII will build skills within communities to manage the effects of climate change and natural hazards by supporting education programs, facilitating the preparation and implementation of locally managed adaptation plans, strengthening institutions and building and maintain stronger infrastructure.
KAPIII supports the Kiribati Government’s National Adaptation Program of Action and the Kiribati Development Plan, which identify improved management of water resources and strengthened coastal resilience as national priorities..
KAP III followed on from KAP II (2006 to 2011) and KAP I (2003 to 2005). KAP II was the US$5.8 million Pilot Implementation phase of the Program. KAPII developed and demonstrated a systematic diagnosis of climate-related problems, designed and implemented cost-effective adaptation measures and continued the integration of climate risk awareness and responsiveness into economic and operational planning from KAPI. KAPII had five broad component and included (i) Policy, planning, and information, (ii) Reducing the vulnerability of the coastline including key public assets and ecosystems; (iii) The development and management of freshwater resources; and (iv) Providing technical assistance to build capacity at island and community level; and (v)Project management.
KAP I was the preparation phase of KAP. It initiated the process of mainstreaming adaptation into the national economic planning of the Government of Kiribati, identified priority pilot investments for Phase II and conducted a national consultation for the preparation of the 2007 National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA). At the start of KAP, representatives from each of the inhabited atolls identified key climatic changes that had taken place over the past 20 to 40 years and proposed coping mechanisms to deal with these changes.
KAP III is financed through grants via the World Bank from Government of Australia; the Global Environment Facility (GEF) Least Developed Country Fund (LDCF); Japan Policy and Human Resources Development (PHRD); Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR); and in-kind contribution from the Government of Kiribati.
For more information on KAP, go to: http://www.climate.gov.ki/category/action/adaptation/kiribati-adaptation-program/
Date updated: March 2016
The warming trends are evident in both annual and half-year mean air temperatures at Tarawa from 1950. At Kiritmati, in eastern Kiribati, there has been an increase in November–April rainfall since 1946. This implies either a shift in the mean location of the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) towards Kiritimati and/or a change in the intensity of rainfall associated with the ITCZ. The remaining annual and seasonal rainfall trends for Kiritimati and Tarawa and the extreme rainfall trends for Tarawa show little change.
At Kiritmati, in eastern Kiribati, there has been an increase in November–April rainfall since 1946. This implies either a shift in the mean location of the ITCZ towards Kiritimati and/or a change in the intensity of rainfall associated with the ITCZ. The remaining annual and seasonal rainfall trends for Kiritimati and Tarawa and the extreme rainfall trends for Tarawa show little change.
Wind-waves in Kiribati are strongly influenced by both north-easterly and south-easterly trade winds seasonally, and the location of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), with some effect of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interannually. There is little variation in wave climate across the country.
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2014.
- El Niño and La Niña events will continue to occur in the future (very high confidence), but there is little consensus on whether these events will change in intensity or frequency;
- Annual mean temperatures and extremely high daily temperatures will continue to rise (very high confidence);
- Average rainfall is projected to increase (high confidence), along with more extreme rain events(high confidence);
- Droughts are projected to decline in frequency (medium confidence);
- Ocean acidification is expected to continue (very high confidence);
- The risk of coral bleaching will increase in the future (very high confidence);
- Sea level will continue to rise(very high confidence); and
- Wave height is projected to decrease in December–March (low confidence), waves may be more directed from the south in October (low confidence)
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2014.
Additional Resources for Climate Science Information:
- Kiribati Climate Change Portal
- Kiribati Environment and Conservation Division
- Kiribati Meteorology Service
- Pacific Climate Futures Tool
- Pacific Environment Information Network (PEIN) Country Profile: Kiribati
- Pacific Regional Information System (PRISM)
- Second National Communication
- Kiribati Integrated Environment Policy
Date Updated: March 2016
Knowledge Management & Education
The Ministry of Environment’s Curriculum Development and Resource Centre and the Kiribati Teacher’s College are the responsible lead agency for ensuring that students and professionals have capacities to take action on adaptation, and risk reduction and coping strategies before, during and after disasters and emission mitigation. This expected outcome will ensure that appropriate education, training and awareness programs are delivered. The activities and indicators to ensure these are carried out as identified under the KJIP is summarised in the table below:
Activities and sub-activities
Define, specify and monitor climate change and disaster risk management learning outcomes and content in the new syllabus for formal primary and secondary education, including agriculture and livestock, fisheries, water, environment and health (based on Education for Sustainable Development principles – ongoing).
- Incorporate relevant topics, learning outcomes and content on climate change and DRM, along with other areas, into syllabus of Years 3–6, Years 7–9 and Years 10–12 based on consultation outcomes and framework (including quality assurance).
- Consult on the new syllabus in the Gilbert and Line Groups (Kiritimati).
- Develop teaching materials and incorporate relevant content and methods into teacher guides (including quality assurance).
Incorporate climate change, DRM and other related areas such as agriculture, livestock, environment, fisheries, water and health into KTC’s pre-service primary, junior secondary and senior secondary teacher training program and teacher professional development training (in-service programs – ongoing).
- Train KTC lecturers on climate change, DRM and related areas and on teaching and delivery approaches and strategies to these subjects.
- Write pre-service and TPD courses, training materials and facilitator guides.
- Conduct teacher professional development trainings for all in-service teachers in South Tarawa and on all outer islands.
- Train student teachers at KTC based on revised courses in line with the new curriculum including climate change, DRM and related areas (preservice).
- Provision of resources to support the delivery of CC, DRM and related areas for Pre-service and in-service programs
Pre-service and TPD training materials and facilitators guides writing on CC DRM and related areas for different Year levels completed by end of term 3 2014 Kiribati teachers have incorporated knowledge gained in PD workshops on climate change, DRM and related areas and on delivery approaches and strategies into lesson plans for:
- Year 1, 2, & 3 by end of term 3 2015
- Year 4, 5 & 6 by end of term 3 2016
- Year 7 , 8 & 9 by end of term 3 2017
New pre-service courses in delivering CC, DRM and related areas developed:
- Teaching Primary by 2014
- Teaching JSS by 2016
Student and teacher resources are available for the different Year levels:
- Year 1, 2 & 3 by end of term 3 2014
- Year 4, 5 & 6 by end of term 3 2015
- Year 7, 8 & 9 by end of term 3 2016
- Conduct awareness campaign for new TVET policy (partly ongoing).
- Integrate already identified competencies and learning outcomes into existing training programs of Fisheries Training Centre, Marine Training Centre, School of Nursing and Kiribati Police Service.
- Conduct training need analyses with relevant TVET training providers.
- Train lecturers on strategies for teaching about climate change and DRM.
- Develop and/or provide sector-specific and generic training materials on climate change and DRM.
- Assess capacity gaps and needs for climate change adaptation and DRM.
- Identify training programs and resource needs, and align to pre-service and public service training programs on climate change adaptation and disaster risk management skills (water engineers, coastal engineers, ocean modellers, climatologists, meteorologists, entomologists, psychologists).
- Develop new human resource development policy for NSA procedures, along with a training manual.
Increase in the number of I-Kiribati with qualifications related to climate change and disaster risk management by 2018 (tertiary qualifications, professional on-the-job training certificates, attachment certificates; target and baseline to be established by 2015)
For more information, go to: http://www.climate.gov.ki/resources/information-library/
Date updated: March 2016
Kiribati has no obligation under the UNFCCC to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases. Nonetheless, there have been significant efforts to date to reduce fossil fuel imports and increase domestic renewable energy use. These efforts include setting up of the Kiribati Sola energy Company which provides solar lighting on rural islands and markets solar appliances; trialling of coconut oil based bio-fuel; and on-grid solar PV on urban islands.
Greenhouse gas emissions are the result of combustion of imported fossil fuels in the energy sector for electricity generation, sea and land transport, and kerosene for lighting on outer islands; and LPG and kerosene for cooking. In 2005, Kiribati's CO2 emissions (other greenhouse gas data was not reported) were lower than any other country except one. Per capita emissions that year were only 7% of the global average and less than 2% of U.S. per capita emissions. Low-carbon technologies in Kiribati are therefore more beneficial to promote development than to mitigate climate change.
The vision for the Kiribati National Energy Policy (KNEP) is “available, accessible, reliable, affordable, clean and sustainable energy options for the enhancement of economic growth and improvement of livelihoods in Kiribati.” Reducing fossil fuel imports is the major goal, with the uptake of renewable energy along with further energy efficiency improvements on both the demand and supply sides, expected to replace more than one-third of fossil fuels for electricity and transport by 2025.
Reflecting the ambition of the Majuro Declaration Kiribati has identified targets focused on reductions in fossil fuel use by 2025 through increases in renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE and EE) in the following sectors and geographical areas:
- South Tarawa by 45% (23% RE and 22% EE);
- Kiritimati Island by 60% (40% RE and 20% EE);
- rural public infrastructure, including Southern Kiribati Hospital and Ice plants by 60% (40% RE and 20% EE); and
- rural public and private institutions such as boarding schools, Island Council, private amenities and households by 100%(100% RE).
Kiribati proposed a list of activities for off-grid electricity production in its Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) submission to the UNFCCC (see section below). The estimates for financial resources required are in AUD. The activities are:
- Activity 1 – Solar PV mini grid system for Southern Kiribati Hospital (2.4 million) - design, procure and install off-grid PV systems for the Southern main hospital (265kWp) to a level to support the fully equipped needs to operate the hospital. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 2 – Outer Island Clinic solar system rehabilitation ($230,000.00) - design, procure, and install 58 systems in total on 20 outer Islands to provide power for lighting and for HF communication radio. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 3 – Mereang Taabwai Secondary Schools solar PV mini-grid ($500,000.00) -design, procure and install off-grid PV systems (20 kWp) for the school to a level to support a fully equipped computer lab, dormitory lighting, refrigerator/freezers, office equipment and audio-visual equipment. (funded/under implementation)
- Activity 4 –Junior Secondary School (JSS)system.($285,000.00) - design, procure and install off-grid PV systems for lighting and Charging Laptop computers of 2 classrooms and staff room in all JSS in the Outer Islands (410 Wp each). (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 5 –Solar Home System for Households.(1.5million) - procure and install 3900 solar home system to cover up all remaining households in the Outer Islands. The system will provide basic lighting, phone and radio charging which will improve socio-economic condition in the Outer Islands. (funded/under implementation)
- Activity 6 – Outer Island Council solar PV mini grid system ($710,000.00) - design, procure and install off-grid PV systems (5 kWp each) for island council administrative centres in the Gilbert and Line Groups. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 7 – Outer Island Fish Centres ($610,000.00) - design, procure and install off-grid PV systems for the Fish Centres (3.75kWp each) in all the Islands to a level to support a fully equipped centres lighting, refrigeration and other equipment. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 8 – Desalination Plant for vulnerable rural community. ($115,000.00) – 19 systems for 12 community systems for solar water desalination plant will be procured and installed on 9 selected Islands. This activity will improve quality of life in households by providing portable water supply to the most vulnerable Islands in Kiribati. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 9 – Outer Island Police Station solar system rehabilitation ($60,000.00) - 23 solar systems (120 Wp each) will be procured and installed in all of the outer Islands for communication, lighting, etc at the Police stations and an additional 8 Police posts. (not yet fully funded)
- Activity 10 – Solar PV system for non-government vocational institutions: CCL Manoku and Alfred Sadd Institution ($500,000.00) - design, procure and install off-grid PV systems (10 kWp) for each community institution to support the institution daily activities. (funded/under implementation
For more information including those on conditional mitigation actions of Kiribati, go to: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Kiribati/1/INDC_KIRIBATI.pdf
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions
Kiribati’s mitigation contribution pledged in August 2015 is for a five year period, starting 2020, with reference to 2025 and ending in 2030.
Type and level of contribution:
All commitments are premised on:
- a fair and ambitious agreement being reached, reflecting Common but Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities; and
- timely access to international climate change financing, capacity building and technology.
Kiribati is a LDC SIDS with limited resources, that will nonetheless commit to reduce emissions by: 13.7% by 2025 and 12.8% by 2030 compared to a BaU projection.
In addition to these quantified outcomes, Kiribati will proactively protect and sustainably manage its mangrove resources, as well as protect and enhance coastal vegetation and seagrass beds. Together these actions represent effective stewardship of more than 6 million tonnes of Carbon Dioxide stored, more than 100 times the current annual national emissions inventory.
On the understanding that a global agreement addresses international assistance to access financial and technical resources, Kiribati can, with international assistance, contribute a further:
- 48.8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2025; and
- 49% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030, compared to the BaU projection.
With appropriate international assistance, Kiribati can reduce its emissions by more than 60% (61.8%) by 2030.
Reference year or period: The BaU projection is based on an extrapolation of historic data covering the period 2000-2014
Estimated quantified emissions impact:
In addition to the carbon storage in the ocean ecosystem, Kiribati’s unconditional contribution will reduce emissions by 10,090tCO2e annually throughout the period 2020 to 2030. Kiribati’s conditional contribution (with international assistance) will reduce emissions by 35,880tCO2e annually by 2025, and by 38,420tCO2e annually by 2030.
% of national emissions
INDC covers fossil fuels and marine sequestration. Fossil fuel use covers more than 98% of the reported national inventory
Power (approximately 48%)
Maritime and coastal sector including mangrove, coastal vegetation and seagrass beds
Carbon dioxide only (estimated > 99% of inventory)
Further information, relevant to commitment type
Commitments are in the form of Outcomes and Actions. These are referenced as deviation from Business as Usual projections. BaU projections are based on fossil fuel consumption data for the period 2000-2014, with line of best fit extrapolation to 2030. The projection will be revised to include more accurate information with the Third National Communication.
Intention to use market based mechanisms to meet commitments
Kiribati will consider market based mechanisms to support establishment and operation of a National Climate Change Trust Fund.
Land sector accounting approach
NA for Land Use. Appropriate methodologies drawn from international best practice to quantify sequestration from mangrove plantations.
Narrative supporting the fair-share
assessment of the contribution
Kiribati is a LDC SIDS that is in no way responsible for the unfolding climate change catastrophe, yet Kiribati is extremely vulnerable to climate change impacts. Current (2014) greenhouse gas emissions from Kiribati are approximately 63,000tCO2e/year. This is extremely small: representing approximately just 0.0002% of global emissions.
Kiribati also has very low per capita emissions, at just: 0.6tCO2 per person in 2014. This is less than the average per capita emissions of sub-Saharan Africa (0.8tCO2/capita), and less than half of the estimated level required to stay below 2oC of warming, of around 1.5tCO2e/capita (using 2010 data from World Bank, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home/aspx)
Accordingly, ANY contribution from Kiribati is more than fair, and must be considered ambitious, given the extraordinary circumstances of Kiribati.
For more information go to: http://www4.unfccc.int/submissions/INDC/Published%20Documents/Kiribati/1/INDC_KIRIBATI.pdf
Date updated: March 2016
Republic of Marshall Islands.
Ms Taouea Reiher
Environment & Conservation Division
Ministry of Environment, Lands & Agriculture Development
PO Box 234
Tel: (686) 28647/28211/28507
Fax: (686) 28334
Disaster Risk Management
Mr. Michael Foon
Acting Policy Officer - Climate Change and Strategic Risk Management Unit
Disaster Risk Management
Government of Kiribati
Office of Te Beretitenti
Tel: (686) 21183
Date updated: March 2016
The following references have been used to develop the country profile. It is important to note that contributions are from local, regional and international agencies. The profile is reviewed by the national focal point for accuracy. We encourage you to contact the country contacts (focal points) if any documents cannot be accessed through the links.
- Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO (2014). Climate Variability, Extremes and Change in the Western Tropical Pacific: New Science and Updated Country Reports. Pacific-Australia Climate Change Science and Adaptation Planning Program Technical Report, Australian Bureau of Meteorology and Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Australia
- Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations, July 2007.
- Pacific Disaster Net
- Forum Secretariat website
- UNFCCC int
- Kiribati Adaptation Program
- Kiribati Climate Change Portal
- Kiribati IND
Date updated: March 2016